Mongolia is located in landlocked plateau of Central Asia between China and Russia, covering an area of 1,566,500 square km. It stretches 2392 km from east to west and 1259 km from north to south. Total length of boundary is 8158km. Mongolia is one of the world’s 39 countries has no sea outlet. The average altitude is 1580 m above sea level. The capital Ulaanbaatar city lies 1380 m above sea level.
The lowest point is Huh Nuur Depression (560 m above sea level) in the north east of the country and the highest point is 4374 m elevated Huiten peak of majestic, snow capped Altai Mountains in far west. 80 % of the total territory is 1000 m above sea level.
Mongolia has population of 2.7 million people. Population consists of 24 different ethnic groups both Mongol and Turkic origin. 86% of which is Halha Mongols, 6% Kazakh (Muslims) and rest are others. Average population density is one person for every 0.5 sq.km of area.
60% of the population is under age of 35. Average life expectancy is just over 65 years.
Continental with little precipitation (220mm a year) and it has four clearly distinctive seasons; summer is short and hot, autumn enjoys sunlight, a little bit chilly on some days, but very colorful, winter is long and cold, but beautiful with its shining snow covers, spring is windy. Winter is not as cold as transmitted by western media about Mongolian weather. Average winter temperature -26 Celsius degree while summer temperature +26 degree. The hottest days, heats more than 32 degree continues only 10 days in July and coldest days that reach -32 degree can happen 10 -15 days in some winter. However, the hottest day reached 42 while the coldest day reached -50 degree.
Mongolian language belongs to Ural Altaic language family. Official language is Mongolian. 94 % of the population speaks in Mongolia, but some of the ethnic groups speak with dialect. Kazakh people (6% of the population) speak in Turkish.
Traditionally Mongolians practice Shamanism that worships blue sky and nature. During the 16th -17th centuries, Buddhism introduced Mongolia widely. Before Mongolian People’s Revolution of the 1921, 40 % of Mongolian male population was monks. Since the 1930s it was prohibited to worship Buddhism, but people were still faithful in their mind. There were 700 Buddhist monasteries in Mongolia, but during the social purge of the 1930, more than 560 of the 700 monasteries were destroyed. More than 120 monasteries could remain anyway but not complete.
Since Democracy of the 1990’s, the monasteries were reopened and people felt freedom of making speech and worship. Mongolian Buddhism is different from Tibetan Buddhism. It has connected and mixed with traditional way of life of Mongolian people.
Nowadays, 70% of Mongolian population worship Buddhism. T
Mongolia has rich heritage of traditional healing including using medicinal plants, wild and domesticated animal organs, mare and goat milk, acupuncture and cauterization. However, nowadays people prefer first see a doctor and get accurate medicinal treatment. Now there are over 400 private and state clinics, hospitals. Even though Mongolian hospitals considered that not equipped as good as developed countries with tools for diagnostics. Some private clinics equipped with good tools for diagnostics. If you are planning to travel Mongolia, it is a good idea to bear medicines best suit you.
Mongolian territory divided into a capital city and 21 provinces. The provinces are subdivided into 333 sums, sums Ulaanbaatar
Capital city of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar in central Mongolia located on the Tuul River shore, one of the big rivers, on the foothill of BogdKhaan Mountain strictly protected area 2268 m in the south and surrounded by other three sacred mountains, 1380 m above sea level. Administratively, divided into 9 districts 122 subdistricts. As of December, 2007 Ulaanbaatar’s population of 1025174. 494611 of which men and 530563 are women. 67% of total population under age of 35, 30% of which are children. Receive 242 mm precipitation a year. Humidity 69%. Avarage temperature in January -26, in July +28. Coldest city in the world reached -45. Center of asian high atmospheric pressure ; 1037 Enjoys 250 sunny days.
First, the city was named HutugtiinUrguu (big ger of famous monk) from 1639-1719, then named IkureKhhuree from 1719-1778 named Urguu was center of Mongolian yellow sect Buddhism, political center of central Mongolia and important junction of foreign and domestic trade. From 1778-1910 named IkhHuree was not only center of Buddhism also was political, administrative and cultural center, big junction of trade and played in important role of real city. Population of IkhKhuree estimated 15-20 thousand. 1911-1924 named HiislelKhuree. 1922-1924 was important years Mongolians gained Big Mongolian ger built on the shore of ShireeTsagaan Lake in Burdsoum, Uvurkhangai province in 1639 for Zanabazar who was first Bogd (first living Buddha), famous painter, sculptor, head of Mongolian Buddhism and state was base of modern capital city Ulaanbaatar. This city moved 28 times and changed its name 5 times in its history. independence. Since 1924 until now named Ulaanbaatar. Ulaanbaatar is political, cultural, industrial, transportation center of the country has its own emblem and flag.